Competitive and climate-friendly industrial transition
Transformation of production processes and energy use
Just over a fifth of CO2 emissions are ejected directly by industry, making this sector the second largest emitter in Germany after electricity production. Three-quarters of these are emitted by the basic production of steel, chemicals, cement, glass and paper. Most industrial greenhouse gas emissions come from high-temperature process heat, either in the form of steam or hot water, or from the direct firing of various furnaces. The high temperatures and specific requirements of combustion limit the renewable energies suitable for industry to biomass and secondary energy sources generated from renewables, such as hydrogen. Further emissions are caused by chemical reactions in the production processes (process emissions). These can scarcely be avoided in some areas, such as the cement industry, with the technologies available today.
To achieve the climate protection goals, a considerable shift towards CO2-neutral production processes and emission-free energy sources is needed in industry. In some cases, corresponding technological processes already exist, such as the direct reduction process of steel using green hydrogen, but are not yet economically viable.
The transformation requires a politically defined framework so that German industry can sensibly plan investments in the interests of climate protection while remaining competitive. To enable policy-makers to create this framework, they must be able to correctly identify the advantages and disadvantages of various instruments and measures. For this purpose, Ariadne develops model-based scenario analyses and concrete options for action for a climate-friendly and competitive industry in Germany, in dialogue with stakeholders from industry, politics and society.